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Austin, A. (2013). The Unfinished March: An overview. Washington, DC: Economic Policy Institute. Retrieved from

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Humes, K. R., Jones, N. A., & Ramirez, R. R. (2011). Overview of race and Hispanic origin: 2010. United Statse Census Bureau, report number: C2010BR-02. Retrieved from

Orfield, G., Kucsera, J., & Siegel-Hawley, G. (2012). E pluribus…separation: Deepening double segregation for more students. Los Angeles, CA: The Civil Rights Project/Proyecto Derechos Civiles. Retrieved from…separation-deepening-double-segregation-for-more-students/orfield_epluribus_revised_omplete_2012.pdf

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Biddle, B. J., & Berliner, D. C. (2002). A research synthesis / Unequal school funding in the United States. Beyond Instructional Leadership, 59, 48-59. Retrieved from

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Tatum, B. D. (1997). “Why are all the black kids sitting together in the cafeteria?” and other conversations about race. New York, NY: Basic Books.

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Clark, K. B., & Clark, M. P. (1950). Emotional factors in racial identification and preference in Negro children. The Journal of Negro Education19, 341-350.

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Aboud, F. E. (1988). Children and prejudice. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.

Kelly, D. J., Quinn, P. C., Slater, A. M., Lee, K., Gibson, A., Smith, M., … Pascalis, O. (2005). Three-month-olds, but not newborns, prefer own-race faces. Developmental Science8, F31–F36.

Rogers, L. O., & Meltzoff, A. N. (in press). Is gender more important and meaningful than race: An analysis of racial and gender identity among Black, White, and Mixed-Race children. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. doi: 10.1037/cdp0000125

Rogers, L. O., Zosuls, K. M., Halim, M. L., Ruble, D., Hughes, D., & Fuligni, A. (2012). Meaning making in middle childhood: An exploration of the meaning of ethnic identity. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 18, 99–108.

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Killen, M. (2007). Children’s social and moral reasoning about exclusion. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16, 32-36.

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Spears Brown, C., & Bigler, R. S. (2005). Children’s perceptions of discrimination: A developmental model. Child Development, 76, 533-553.

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Ruble, D. N., Alvarez, J., Bachman, M., Cameron, J., Fuligni, A., Garcia Coll, C., & Rhee, E. (2004). The development of a sense of “we”: The emergence and implications of children’s collective identity. In M. Bennett and F. Sani (Eds.) The development of the social self. East Sussex, England: Psychology Press.


  • Bias
    the belief that some people or ideas are better than others, usually resulting in unfair treatment
    Biological race
    physical racial features such as skin color, hair textures, and facial features
    Explicit racism/bias
    racism that is plainly expressed through words and or actions
    Implicit racism/bias
    racism that hides in our unconscious biases and gets expressed in our actions
    the beliefs and practices that uphold and reinforce inequalities based on race
    Social identity
    a person’s sense of self that is based on group membership
    Social race
    The social norms, attitudes, beliefs and behaviors that accompany racial groups
    Systemic racism
    policies, practices, and laws that reinforce social inequalities by discriminating against groups of people, either directly or indirectly, and limiting their rights