Cited References

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Kuhl, P.K. (2010). Brain mechanisms in early language acquisition. Neuron, 67, 713-727.

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Brown, R. (1973). A first language: The early stages. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.  

Byers-Heinlein, K., & Werker, J. F. (2009). Monolingual, bilingual, trilingual: infants’ language experience influences the development of a word-learning heuristic. Developmental Science, 12, 815-823.

Hollich, G., Golinkoff, R. M., & Hirsh-Pasek, K. (2007). Young children associate novel words with complex objects rather than salient parts. Developmental Psychology, 43, 1051-1061.

Markman, E. M. (1992). Constraints on word learning: Speculations about their nature, origins and domain specificity. In M. R. Gunnar & M. P. Maratsos (Eds.), Modularity and constraints in language and cognition: The Minnesota symposium on child psychology (pp. 59–101). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

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Brown, R. (1973). A first language: The early stages. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.  

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Brooks, R., & Meltzoff, A. N. (2005). The development of gaze-following and its relation to language. Developmental Science, 8, 535-543.

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Bates, E., & Goodman, J. (1999). On the emergence of grammar from the lexicon. In B. MacWhinney (Ed.), The emergence of language (pp. 29-79). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

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Berko, J. (1958). The child’s learning of English morphology. Word, 14, 150-177.

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Hart, B., & Risley, T. R. (1995). Meaningful differences in the everyday experience of young American children. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing.

Weisleder, A., & Fernald, A. (2013). Talking to children matters: Talking to children matters: Early language experience strengthens processing and builds vocabulary. Psychological Science, 24, 2143-2152.


  • Back-and-forth or contingent interactions
    exchanges where a caregiver times her responses to a child’s behavior
    Canonical babbling
    producing the same consonant and vowel over and over, such as dadada
    Infant-directed speech
    a special tone and style of speech used to talk to young children. It’s also called parentese
    Joint attention
    shared attention between social partners to an object or event
    using a word to describe more object categories than it actually represents
    failing to extend a word to other objects in the same category
    Vocabulary spurt
    rapid growth in word learning