Read more about the science of developmental causal learning in this book:

http://www.goodreads.com/book/show/711188.Causal_Learning

Learn more about how children develop an understanding of cause-and-effect between birth and 36 months:

http://www.cde.ca.gov/SP/cd/re/itf09cogdevfdcae.asp

Learn more about how children gather evidence from the world and make decisions in this Ted Talk by psychologist Alison Gopnik:

https://www.ted.com/talks/alison_gopnik_what_do_babies_think

Watch this Ted Talk by cognitive scientist, Laura Schulz as she discusses very young children’s incredible logic skills:

https://www.ted.com/talks/laura_schulz_the_surprisingly_logical_minds_of_babies

This page has some simple activities related to teaching a child about cause-and-effect in everyday life:

http://www.readingrockets.org/article/cause-and-effect