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Chouinard, M. M. (2007). Children’s questions: A mechanism for cognitive development. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 72 (Serial no. 286).

Gopnik, A., Meltzoff, A. N., & Kuhl, P. K. (1999). The scientist in the crib: Minds, brains, and how children learn. New York: William Morrow.

Harris, P. (2015). What children learn from questioning. Educational Leadership, 73, 24-29.

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Duncan, G. J., Dowsett, C. J., Claessens, A., Magnuson, K., Huston, A. C., Klebanov, P., Japel, C. (2007). School readiness and later achievement. Developmental Psychology, 43, 1428-1446.

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Bell, P., Lewenstein, B., Shouse, A. W., & Feder, M. A. (Eds.). (2009). Learning science in informal environments. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Fisher, K. R., Hirsh‐Pasek, K., Newcombe, N., & Golinkoff, R. M. (2013). Taking shape: Supporting preschoolers’ acquisition of geometric knowledge through guided play. Child Development, 84, 1872-1878.

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Levine, S. C., Ratliff, K. R., Huttenlocher, J., & Cannon, J. (2012). Early puzzle play: A predictor of preschoolers’ spatial transformation skill. Developmental Psychology, 48, 530-542.

Newcombe, N. S., & Frick, A. (2010). Early education for spatial intelligence: Why, what, and how. Mind, Brain, and Education4, 102-111.

Pruden, S. M., Levine, S. C., & Huttenlocher, J. (2011). Children’s spatial thinking: Does talk about the spatial world matter? Developmental Science, 14, 1417-1430.

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Hofer, K., Cummings, T., & Farran, D. (2013). Preschool children’s math-related behaviors mediate curriculum effects on math achievement gains. Early Childhood Research  Quarterly, 28, 487-495.

Klibanoff, R. S., Levine, S. C., Huttenlocher, J., Vasilyeva, M., & Hedges, L. V. (2006). Preschool children’s mathematical knowledge: The effect of teacher “math talk.” Developmental Psychology42, 59-69.

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Master, A., Cheryan, S., & Meltzoff, A. N. (2017). Social group membership increases STEM engagement among preschoolers. Developmental Psychology, 53, 201-209.

Meltzoff, A. N. (2007). “Like me”: A foundation for social cognition. Developmental Science, 10, 126-134.

Meltzoff, A. N. (2013). Origins of social cognition: Bidirectional self-other mapping and the “like-me” hypothesis. In M. Banaji & S. Gelman (Eds.), Navigating the social world: What infants, children, and other species can teach us (pp. 139–144). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

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Master, A., Cheryan, S., Moscatelli, A., & Meltzoff, A. N. (2017). Programming experience promotes higher STEM motivation among first-grade girls. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 160, 92-106.

Master, A., & Meltzoff, A. N. (2016). Building bridges between psychological science and education: Cultural stereotypes, STEM, and equity. Prospects, 46, 215-234.

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Master, A., Cheryan, S., & Meltzoff, A. N. (2016). Computing whether she belongs: Stereotypes undermine girls’ interest and sense of belonging in computer science. Journal of Educational Psychology, 108, 424-437.


  • Scaffolding
    the support a caregiver provides a child to help them achieve more than they would be able to accomplish on their own
    (science, technology, engineering, math) a group of topics linked by a common focus and approach