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Thomas, A., & Chess, S. (1977). Temperament and development. New York, NY: Brunner/Mazel.

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Garstein, M. A., & Rothbart, M. K. (2003). Studying infant temperament via the revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire. Infant Behavior and Development, 26, 64-86.

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Fox, N. A., Henderson, H. A., Pérez-Edgar, K., & White, L. K. (2008). The biology of temperament: An integrative approach. In C. A. Nelson & M. Luciana (Eds.), Handbook of developmental cognitive neuroscience (2nd ed., pp. 839–853). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

White, L. K., Lamm, C., Helfinstein, S. M., & Fox, N. A. (2012). Neurobiology and neurochemistry of temperament in children. In M. Zentner & R.L. Shiner (Eds.), Handbook of temperament (pp. 347-367). New York: Guilford Press.

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Chen, X., Rubin, K. H., & Sun, Y. (1992). Social reputation and peer relationships in Chinese and Canadian children: a cross-cultural study. Child Development, 63, 1336-1343.

Kerr, M. (2001). Culture as a context for temperament: Suggestions from the life courses of shy Swedes and American. In T. D. Wachs & G. A. Kohnstamm (Eds.), Temperament in context (pp. 139-152). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

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Else-Quest, N. M., Hyde, J. S., Goldsmith, H. H., & Van Hulle, C. A. (2006). Gender differences in temperament: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 33–72.

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Pluess, M., & Belsky, J. (2010). Children’s differential susceptibility to effects of parenting. Family Science, 1, 14-25.

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Posner, M. I., & Rothbart, M. K. (2000). Developing mechanisms of self-regulation. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 427–441

Rothbart, M. K., Derryberry, D., & Hershey, K. (2000). Stability of temperament in childhood: Laboratory infant assessment to parent report at seven years. In V. J. Molfese & D. L. Molfese (Eds.), Temperament and personality development across the life span (pp. 85-119). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

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  • Anterior cingulate cortex
    part of the brain that helps control emotional impulses
    more or less of a behavior
    Goodness of fit
    occurs when your expectations are compatible with a child’s temperament
    Negative reactivity
    a tendency to react in a negative manner
    Positive reactivity
    a tendency to react in a positive manner
    Prefrontal cortex
    the decision-making area of the brain
    a child’s ability to concentrate, to manage emotions, and to control impulses
    how a person approaches the world