Cited References

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Meltzoff, A. N., & Moore, M. K. (1977). Imitation of facial and manual gestures by human neonates. Science, 198, 75-78.

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Barr, R., & Hayne, H. (2003). It’s not what you know it’s who you know: Older siblings facilitate imitation during infancy. International Journal of Early Years Education, 11, 7-21.

Meltzoff, A. N., & Williamson, R. A. (2013). Imitation: social, cognitive, and theoretical perspectives. In P. R. Zelazo (Ed.). Oxford handbook of developmental psychology (vol. 1, pp. 651-682). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

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The Chedd-Angier Production Co. (2001). Growing up different. Scientific American Frontiers.

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Barr, R., Dowden, A., & Hayne, H. (1996). Developmental changes in deferred imitation by 6- to 24-month-old infants. Infant Behavior and Development, 19, 159–170.

Herbert, J., & Hayne, H. (2000). The ontogeny of long-term retention during the second year of life. Developmental Science, 3, 50-56.

Klein, P. J., & Meltzoff, A. N. (1999). Long-term memory, forgetting, and deferred imitation in 12-month-old infants. Developmental Science, 2, 102-113.

Meltzoff, A. N. (1988). Infant imitation after a 1-week delay: Long-term memory for novel acts and multiple stimuli. Developmental Psychology, 24, 470-476.

Meltzoff, A. N. (1995b). What infant memory tells us about infantile amnesia: long-term recall and deferred imitation. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 59, 497-515.

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Barnat, S. B., Klein, P. J., & Meltzoff, A. N. (1996). Deferred imitation across changes in context and object: Memory and generalization in 14-month-old infants. Infant Behavior and Development, 19, 241-251.

Hayne, H., Boniface, J., & Barr, R. (2000). The development of declarative memory in human infants: Age-related changes in deferred imitation. Behavioral Neuroscience, 114, 77-83.

Klein, P. J., & Meltzoff, A. N. (1999). Long-term memory, forgetting, and deferred imitation in 12-month-old infants. Developmental Science, 2, 102-113.

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Devouche, E. (2004). Mother versus stranger: a triadic situation of imitation at the end of the first year of life. Infant Behavior and Development, 13, 35-48.

Hanna, E., & Meltzoff, A. N. (1993). Peer imitation by toddlers in laboratory, home, and day-care contexts: Implications for social learning and memory. Developmental Psychology, 29, 701-710.

Meltzoff, A. N., & Moore, M. K. (1992). Early imitation within a functional framework: The importance of person identity, movement, and development. Infant Behavior and Development, 15, 479-505.

Ryalls, B. O., Gul, R. E., & Ryalls, K. R. (2000). Infant imitation of peer and adult models: evidence for a peer model advantage. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 46, 188-202.

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Meltzoff, A. N. (1995a). Understanding the intentions of others: Re-enactment of intended acts by 18-month-old children. Developmental Psychology, 31, 838-850. 

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Marshall, P. J., & Meltzoff, A. N. (2011). Neural mirroring systems: Exploring the EEG mu rhythm in human infancy. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 1, 110-123.

Marshall, P. J., & Meltzoff, A. N. (2014). Neural mirroring mechanisms and imitation in human infants. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences369.

Rizzolatti, G., & Sinigaglia, C. (2010). The functional role of the parieto-frontal mirror circuit: interpretations and misinterpretations. Nature Review Neuroscience, 11, 264-274.

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Saby, J. N., Meltzoff, A. N., & Marshall, P. J. (2013). Infants’ somatotopic neural responses to seeing human actions: I’ve got you under my skin. PLOS ONE, 8: e77905.

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Williamson, R. A., Jaswal, V. K., & Meltzoff, A. N. (2010). Learning the rules: Observation and imitation of a sorting strategy by 36-month-old children. Developmental Psychology, 46, 57-65.


  • Control group
    a group in a study who does not receive the treatment. The group serves as a comparison for the experimental group.
    Deferred imitation
    reproducing a behavior after a delay from its initial demonstration
    Electroencephalography (EEG)
    a method used to measure electrical activity in the brain
    the ability to apply something learned in one situation to a new situation
    observing then reproducing, or copying, a behavior
    Mirror neurons
    a type of brain cell. Mirror neurons respond when an animal produces an action and when they observe another animal produce the same action.
    Theory of mind
    the awareness that other people can have different thoughts and feelings from one’s own
    Trial-and-error learning
    trying different actions until you perform the right one