Cited References

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Levine, S. C., Ratliff, K. R., Huttenlocher, J., & Cannon, J. (2012). Early puzzle play: a predictor of preschoolers’ spatial transformation skill. Developmental Psychology, 48, 530-542.

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Feigenson, L., & Carey, S. (2003). Tracking individuals via object‐files: evidence from infants’ manual search. Developmental Science, 6, 568-584.

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Ginsburg, H. P., Pappas, S., & Seo, K. H. (2001). Everyday mathematical knowledge: Asking young children what is developmentally appropriate. In S. L. Golbeck (Ed.), The Rutgers invitational symposium on education series. Psychological perspectives on early childhood education: Reframing dilemmas in research and practice (pp. 181-219). Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Seo, K. H., & Ginsburg, H. P., (2004). What is developmentally appropriate in early childhood mathematics education? In D.H. Clements, J. Sarama, & A. M. DiBiase (Eds.), Engaging young children in mathematics: Standards for early childhood mathematics education (pp. 91-104).  Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

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Fisher, K. R., Hirsh-Pasek, K., Newcombe, N., & Golinkoff, R. M. (2013). Taking shape: supporting preschoolers’ acquisition of geometric knowledge through guided play. Child Development, 84, 1872-1878.

Resnick, I., Verdine, B. N., Golinkoff, R., & Hirsh-Pasek, K. (2016). Geometric toys in the attic? A corpus analysis of early exposure to geometric shapes. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 36, 358-365.

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de Villiers, P. A., & de Villiers, J. G. (1992). Language development. In M. H. Bornstein & M. E. Lamb (Eds.), Developmental psychology: An advanced textbook (pp. 337-418). Hillsdale, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Ferrara, K., Hirsh-Pasek, K., Newcombe, N. S., Golinkoff, R. M., & Lam, W. S. (2011). Block talk: Spatial language during block play. Mind, Brain & Education, 5, 143-151.

Zosh, J. M., Hassinger-Das, B., Toub, T. S., Hirsh-Pasek, K., & Golinkoff, R. (2016). Playing with mathematics: how play supports learning and the common core state standards. Journal of Mathematics Education at Teachers College, 7, 45-49.


  • Free play
    is spontaneous, unstructured play that is child-directed
    Guided play
    is like free play, in that it's focused on what the child is interested in. But unlike free play, an adult facilitates a playful learning experience